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人类文明史上最伟大的五分钟

  (中间人物:华盛顿)

导读

我们越来越明白,对人类文明威胁最大、破坏最惨烈的,是不受制约的权力;其次才是自然灾害和人类的无知。把权力关进笼子,才是文明社会的核心价值和人民幸福的牢固基石。

01

1783年,美国独立战争接近尾声。

这一年的12月23日,对于硝烟刚刚散尽的美国来说,是一个重要的日子。大陆会议决定这一天在安纳波利斯(Annapolis)举行仪式,美国独立战争之父、大陆军总司令华盛顿将军将在这里交出委任状,把总司令之职,交还给当时象征着人民权力的大陆会议。

八年前,大陆会议授予他“独裁北方”特权时,他曾说:“我将时刻牢记,剑是我们捍卫自由的最后手段,也是我们获得自由后应最先放下的东西。”

在地球另一端,华盛顿的对手、英国国王乔治三世正跟画家韦斯特(Benjamin West)闲聊。

乔治三世问:“华盛顿打赢后,他会干什么?”韦斯特回答:“听说他要回自己的农庄。”乔治三世感慨:“如果真是那样,他就是世界上最伟大的人!”

  
托玛斯·杰弗逊

  02

权力交还的仪式是由华盛顿的弗吉尼亚同乡托玛斯·杰弗逊(Thomas Jefferson)专程从巴黎赶回北美设计的。

华盛顿最后的讲话十分简单,他说:“现在,我已经完成了赋予我的使命,我将退出这个伟大的舞台,并且向庄严的国会告别。在它的命令之下,我奋战已久。我谨在此交出委任并辞去我所有的公职。”

大陆会议议长则答道:“你在这块新的土地上捍卫了自由的理念,为受伤害和被压迫的人们树立了典范。你将带着同胞们的祝福退出这个伟大的舞台。但是,你的道德力量并没有随着你的军职一齐消失,它将激励子孙后代”。

整个仪式十分简短,前后只有短短的五分钟,却被史学家誉为人类文明史上伟大的五分钟。

这是人类历史上第一次不依靠外在压力,仅仅依靠内心的道德力量就自觉放弃了在为公众服务的过程中聚集起来的权力。

在它以前,人类历史上曾经出现过形形色色的逊位、下野、惧怕各种祸乱而“功成身退”的例子,在它以后,人类历史上还将出现无数以杀戮、屠城为代价而权倾四海的英雄豪杰,但因为这五分钟,那些大大小小争权夺利、不惜弑父杀子的英雄故事黯淡了;那些装神弄鬼、沐猴而冠所谓“领袖”黯淡了;那些千方百计延宕、推诿,甚至在垂暮之年还死死抓住权力之柄就像抓住救命稻草的“伟人”黯淡了……

也从那一刻起,美国人就明确了这样一个理念:一个国家是不能靠武力来管理的。这象征着国家武装力量对文官政府的服从。美国就此避免了君主制和军政府。

华盛顿离开了安纳波利斯,回到弗农山庄,在葡萄架和无花果树下,过起了一种心满意足的乡绅生活。

  

   “制宪会议”代表在上面签字

03

华盛顿辞职后,美国是什么样子?

当时的美国是十三个独立国家的联盟,叫“邦联”,也就是货真价实的“乌合之众”。整个国家一盘散沙,动乱频起。没有统一的货币,没有统一的法律,没有统一的海关和税收,没有国家元首,也没有真正的政府。

各州只好派出代表,开会讨论解决之道。这就是历史上被称为“制宪会议”的1787年费城会议。制宪会议开了116天。代表们唇枪舌剑,作为大会主席的华盛顿却一直沉默不语。

华盛顿为何不说话?因为他知道自己的声望,他不想影响任何条款的制订。他以无声方式表明,大会主席与其他制宪代表,应政治平等、人格平等,没有高低贵贱之分,大会主席无政治、思想、言论之特权。他把民主意识深深的埋进每个美国人的心中。

这次制宪会议,意义极其重大:

第一:它制定了美国联邦宪法。

第二:它建立了总统制、联邦制、代议共和制相结合的国家制度。

第三:它确立了主权在民、三权分立等原则。

这三项成果,为美国迅速崛起成为世界第一强国提供了制度保证。

  

  会议结束后,华盛顿就回家种田去了。

04

宪法制定后过了一年,宪法得到足够支持,正式生效。

各州按照宪法规定,推举总统选举人,选出美国总统。

华盛顿没有竞选,天天在家过田园生活,1789年4月却收到通知——他全票当选为美国第一任总统。

四年后,华盛顿再次全票当选美国总统。1796年,在大家极力推荐他连任第三届总统时,华盛顿果断拒绝了,并发表了告别演说《致合众国人民书》:“我已下定决心,谢绝把我放在下届被选之列……”

1797年任期一满,他就回家酿酒去了。

华盛顿坚决拒绝连任第三届国家总统,开创了摒弃终身总统、和平转移权力的范例。

  

  05

华盛顿辞职的历史意义,在他身后一点点呈现出来:

“我们越来越明白,对人类文明威胁最大、破坏最惨烈的,是不受制约的权力;其次才是自然灾害和人类的无知。”

“几千年的人类文明史,始终伴随战争、奴役、掠夺、破坏的阴影,究其原因,不是因为科学落后、技术低下、艺术匮乏、思想缺位,而是因为权力不受制约。”

把权力关进笼子,才是文明社会的核心价值和人民幸福的牢固基石。华盛顿就是这一基石的奠基人。

华盛顿的伟大:不在他的进取,而在他的退让;不在他的功成,而在他的身退;不在他的掌权,而在他的交权。

他为自由留下的是路标,而不是墓碑。

  

   克林顿访华期间在北京大学演讲

06

1998年6月29日,克林顿访华期间在北京大学演讲时,他提到一件作为“150年前美中两国关系沟通的见证”的历史事件。

克林顿说:“从我在华盛顿特区所住的白宫往窗外眺望,我们首任总统乔治·华盛顿的纪念碑高耸入云。这是一座很高的方尖碑,但就在这个大碑邻近有块小石碑,上面刻着,‘米利坚不设王侯之号,不循世及之规,公器付之公论,创古今未有之局,一何奇也。’这些话并非出自美国人,而是由福建巡抚徐继畬所写,1853年中国政府将它勒石为碑作为礼物赠送给我国。

“我十分感谢这份来自中国的礼物。它直探我们作为人的内心愿望:拥有生存、自由、追求幸福的权利,也有不受国家干预的言论、信仰等自由。这些就是美国220年前赖以立国的核心理想。这些就是引导我们横跨美洲大陆登上世界舞台的理想。这些就是美国人今天仍然珍惜的理想。”

 

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